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July 09 2015

The first ever image taken from the martian surface from the Soviet Mars 3 probe, 2 December 1971.
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes

July 08 2015

NASA’s New Horizons: A “Heart” from Pluto as Flyby Begins

This image of Pluto from New Horizons’ Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) was received on July 8, and has been combined with lower-resolution color information from the Ralph instrument.

After a more than nine-year, three-billion-mile journey to Pluto, it’s show time for NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, as the flyby sequence of science observations is officially underway.

In the early morning hours of July 8, mission scientists received this new view of Pluto—the most detailed yet returned by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) aboard New Horizons. The image was taken on July 7, when the spacecraft was just under 5 million miles (8 million kilometers) from Pluto, and is the first to be received since the July 4 anomaly that sent the spacecraft into safe mode.
Reposted fromeglerion eglerion

Stuff In Space

A realtime 3D map of objects in Earth orbit.

Reposted fromeglerion eglerion
Frank R. Paul: Life on Pluto (Feb 1940)
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes

July 07 2015

Bloody Europa!
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes
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N1 rocket, USSR.
Reposted fromRockYourMind RockYourMind viadomitrz domitrz

Glitch-B-Gone: All Systems Go for New Horizons' Final Approach to Pluto by Alan Boyle, NBC News, Jul 6 2015, 7:12 pm ET

As NASA's New Horizons spacecraft enters the home stretch for its historic July 14 flyby past Pluto, the mission's managers say the glitch that briefly knocked the spacecraft offline over the Fourth of July weekend will never happen again.

If anything goes wrong between now and July 14, the probe's computer is programmed to reboot itself and pick up where it left off.

"Just like resetting your computer at home," Glen Fountain, the $728 million mission's project manager at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, told reporters during a Monday teleconference.

Fountain and New Horizons' principal investigator, Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute, explained why the piano-sized spacecraft hit a "speed bump" on Saturday.

The fault occurred when New Horizons' primary computer was compressing previously acquired image data for more efficient storage on a recorder, at the same time that it was loading the detailed command sequence for the flyby.

"The computer was trying to do these two things at the same time, and the two were more than the processor could handle at one time, so the processor said, 'I'm overloaded,'" Fountain said. That triggered protective software that shut down communications with Earth, switched operations from the primary to the backup computer, and then re-established communications about an hour later in safe mode.

Fountain said that it only took about 15 minutes to diagnose the problem once contact was re-established. He said the image data that was being compressed over the weekend was richer than the "test pattern" data that was used for earlier simulations — and that probably contributed to the computer overload.

"These two events will not happen concurrently again," he said.

The process of restoring normal operations and getting back to gathering scientific observations has taken a couple of days, and there are a couple of reasons for that.

Firstly, the spacecraft is nearly 3 billion miles (5 billion kilometers) away. That means it takes 4.5 hours for signals to be sent to the spacecraft at the speed of light, and another 4.5 hours for the spacecraft to send back a response. Secondly, Stern said the team decided to concentrate on spacecraft recovery rather than trying to make the observations that had been scheduled for Sunday and Monday — in his words, to "focus on the cake and not worry too much about the icing."

About 30 observations went by the wayside, out of a total of 496 that had been scheduled to take place starting Saturday and going all the way out past the flyby. None of the mission's high-priority observations will be lost, Stern said.

Stern said the team had weathered nine safe-mode episodes during the nine years since New Horizons' launch, "so we've been in a familiar circumstance a number of times before."

"I probably should tell you I'm more nervous, but I'm not," he said.

New Horizons is currently less than 5.6 million miles (9 million kilometers) from Pluto and closing in at 30,000 mph (50,000 kilometers per hour). On Tuesday, the spacecraft is scheduled to begin a pre-programmed observational campaign for the encounter that will last until two days after the flyby.

During the time that New Horizons is in encounter mode, it won't go into safe mode if the computer encounters a problem. Instead, it will reboot and return to the pre-programmed time line. If the computer fails to execute a high-priority observational task due to a glitch, it will try again. "We make sure that if one trips, we have a backup," Stern said.

Stern noted that the July 14 flyby will take place on the 50th anniversary of the Mariner 4 probe's first successful flyby of Mars. "We will collect approximately 5,000 times as much data as Mariner 4, and for a first flyby reconnaissance, we're gonna knock your socks off," he promised.

Most of the data will be stored in the spacecraft's 128 gigabits of flash memory until after the encounter, and then sent back at an average rate of 2,000 bits per second. It'll take 16 months to transmit everything, Stern said.

"You've got to really be into delayed gratification if you want to be on this mission," he said.

After the teleconference, NASA released new pictures of Pluto that were based on data sent back between July 1 and 3, just before the glitch hit. The images show a swath of dark terrain around Pluto's midsection, breaking into what appears to be a series of regularly spaced dark spots.

"This object is unlike any other that we have observed," Stern said. "While Pluto has some similarities to Triton [Neptune's largest moon], it is not Triton. It looks like it has a much more complicated story to tell us."
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes

July 06 2015


New Horizons Returns to Science Ops July 7
A “Hard to Detect Timing Flaw” (a.k.a. "Leap Second") Found as the Cause of Safe Mode


This just in from NASA.gov:

"NASA’s New Horizons mission is returning to normal science operations after a July 4 anomaly and remains on track for its July 14 flyby of Pluto.

The investigation into the anomaly that caused New Horizons to enter “safe mode” on July 4 has concluded that no hardware or software fault occurred on the spacecraft. The underlying cause of the incident was a hard-to-detect timing flaw in the spacecraft command sequence that occurred during an operation to prepare for the close flyby. No similar operations are planned for the remainder of the Pluto encounter.

“I’m pleased that our mission team quickly identified the problem and assured the health of the spacecraft,” said Jim Green, NASA’s Director of Planetary Science. “Now – with Pluto in our sights – we’re on the verge of returning to normal operations and going for the gold.” 

Preparations are ongoing to resume the originally planned science operations on July 7 and to conduct the entire close flyby sequence as planned. The mission science team and principal investigator have concluded that the science observations lost during the anomaly recovery do not affect any primary objectives of the mission, with a minimal effect on lesser objectives. “In terms of science, it won’t change an A-plus even into an A,” said New Horizons Principal Investigator Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.

Adding to the challenge of recovery is the spacecraft’s extreme distance from Earth. New Horizons is almost 3 billion miles away, where radio signals, even traveling at light speed, need 4.5 hours to reach home. Two-way communication between the spacecraft and its operators requires a nine-hour round trip."
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes

July 05 2015

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New Horizons’ trajectory and timeline for its July 14th 2015 encounter with Pluto.

(Update on July 04 collision with alien matter / safe mode situation: "Teeny signal occasionally wafts from @NewHorizons2015. Start praying!")
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes
9 days to Pluto: New Horizons talking again.
(Canberra Station DSS-43)
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes
A Sunny Day
(by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Featured as one of the finest images on the English Wikipedia.)
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes viascience science
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Reposted frommental-cat mental-cat

July 03 2015

Moon crater's map
Reposted fromprotesedentaria protesedentaria
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Reposted fromGtG GtG viahexxe hexxe

July 02 2015

The moon looks so 3D and unreal.
Reposted fromnomad nomad

July 01 2015

Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies, by the US National Research Council.
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes
Reposted fromArchimedes Archimedes
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